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 Post subject: An Investigation of What Seems To Be
PostPosted: Wed Nov 02, 2011 12:58 am 

Joined: Thu Mar 24, 2005 1:48 am
Posts: 3610
The time has arrived where we must understand the realities of the dark forces amongst us.

Rise in mercenary activities warrants urgent attention, says UN expert group

1 November 2011 ... cenar&Cr1=


Press Conference by Working Group on Mercenaries

1 November 2011 ... es.doc.htm


UN Expert Reports ‘Alarming Resurgence’ in Use of Mercenaries to Violate Human Rights, Often in New, Novel Ways, in Statement to Third Committee

31 October 2011 ... 23.doc.htm

PgDn to "Introductory Statement"

FAIZA PATEL, Chair-Rapporteur of the Working Group on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights of peoples to self-determination, said in the last year there had been an alarming resurgence of the use of mercenaries in armed conflict – often in new and novel ways.

Traditionally, “mercenaries” had been soldiers hired to fight in an armed conflict or to overthrow a Government, but in some recent conflicts Governments had used foreign fighters against their own populations.



2) Patel is puppet Pakistan's representative

3) How The Superpower WRECKED the original anti-imperialist nature of the anti-mercenary campaign:

"By resolution 2005/2 the Commission on Human Rights decided to [>] end the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the use of mercenaries as a means of impeding the exercise of [>] the right of peoples to self-determination and [instead]

to establish a working group on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating [>] human rights and

impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination, made up of five independent experts, one from each regional group."

--Last paragraph of "Special Rapporteur on use of mercenaries as a means of impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination" ... Index.aspx


The Working Group hoped to visit Côte d’Ivoire in the next few weeks to obtain information on credible allegations of grave human rights violations as the former President, Laurent Gbagbo, reportedly hired some 4,500 Liberian mercenaries to maintain his grip on power after he was defeated in an election at the end of 2010.

In Libya, there had also been several reports of foreign fighters recruited from neighbouring African countries, and also possibly Eastern Europe, who were involved in repressing peaceful demonstrations earlier this year. As events settled down in Libya, the Working Group would make it a priority to visit that country as well. “In both Côte d’Ivoire and Libya, the Working Group is deeply concerned about alleged mercenary involvement in serious human rights violations, such as summary executions, enforced disappearances, rape, torture, arbitrary arrests and detentions. In all cases, mercenaries must be held accountable for such actions. The Working Group encourages States to cooperate in order to ensure that mercenaries are arrested and tried,” she said.

Activities of private military and security companies were the other equally important aspect of her mandate, as those companies continued to undertake an ever-larger range of activities in an increasing number of countries, she said. It was difficult to gauge the extent of the industry worldwide – estimates varied from $20 billion to $100 billion per year – but a few numbers might be helpful in assessing the size and growth of the industry: the August 2011 report of the United States Commission on Wartime Contracting stated spending on contracts and grants in Iraq and Afghanistan was expected to exceed $206 billion through the end of the fiscal year 2011; in 2010, the United States Departments of Defence and State hired more than 260,000 contractor employees, while during the first Gulf War the United States military hired only 9,200 contractors.

However, those numbers were “only the tip of the iceberg”, since private military and security companies operated in a variety of other situations, ranging from drug eradication in Colombia to post-conflict reconstruction. Non-governmental organizations, private companies and the United Nations also took advantage of their services. The potential impact of those widespread activities on human rights meant private military and security companies could not be allowed to continue to operate without adequate regulation and mechanisms to ensure accountability. “There is a growing recognition amongst all stakeholders that these companies must be regulated, both at the national and at the international level,” she said.

The intergovernmental working group on this issue, established last year by the Human Rights Council, met in May and was attended by representatives from 70 Member States, the African Union and the European Union. “At the meeting of the intergovernmental working group, we were encouraged to hear that the majority of States present recognized the need for regulation of the activities of private military and security companies. Whether such regulation will take the form of an international convention along the lines proposed by the Working Group remains to be seen. A second meeting of the intergovernmental working group will be held in the next months and we look forward to again serving as resource persons for consultations,” she said.

Another major development over the last year was the launch of the International Code of Conduct for private security providers, which had been signed by more than 200 companies from all regions of the world.

Recent country visits showed developments in national legislation and regulation of private military and security companies, she said. After a visit to Iraq, the Working Group commended the efforts of Iraqi and United States authorities to decrease human rights incidents involving such companies, but noted gaps in domestic legislation persisted in both countries, resulting in impunity for some perpetrators. “The Working Group welcomes all national efforts to regulate private military and security companies, but regrets that none have yet come close to achieving full accountability for human rights violations. Prosecutions remain rare, impunity persists, and victims are rarely provided an effective remedy,” she said.

Question and Answer Session

Cuba’s delegate drew attention to the work of the open-ended intergovernmental working group on a legal framework to monitor the activities of private military and security countries, as well as the efforts of the working group on mercenaries. She invited all States to contribute to that work.

Switzerland’s representative said 37 States currently supported the Montreux document and code of conduct. The working group on mercenaries complemented her country’s efforts to regulate private military and security companies. States must adopt national laws to that end, she said, further noting a draft Swiss law that had been made public and would be addressed by January. She highlighted concerns about having a transparent mechanism to address individual complaints. Following the seminar on the monopoly on the use of force, the working group proposed to review national legislation to identify best practices. Could the Chair provide details on that effort?

South Africa’s representative said his delegation shared the concerns that were highlighted in the report. Further, his country had national legislation regarding those issues and had rectified gaps through the promulgation of reforms. He noted that South Africans who were being recruited for that work often held dual citizenship. Among other things, that posed a burden on recovering mortal remains. While his Government recognized the nomenclature of private military and security companies, it had no such companies. The Government had also made it clear that the successful cooperation of other States was required in prosecutions, since South Africa could not prosecute extraterritorially. He reaffirmed support for an international, legally binding legal framework for violations committed by private military and security companies, including compensation for victims.

Pakistan’s delegate expressed support for the working group. He said the presentation had been very detailed and reflected the various aspects of the discussion on that important subject. He said most Member States supported the call for regulating private military and security companies. The code of conduct was not a replacement for such a legal, regulatory framework. What steps were recommended for countries that were using and hiring private military and security companies?

Responding, Ms. PATEL said national legislation was a critical issue and the working group was now looking into that area. A number of different projects had already done so, and the working group intended to take a look at what had been collected in order to identify areas where national legislation was lacking. However, she noted that it was difficult to take a one-size-fits-all approach, given the diversity of national circumstances and suggested that the identification of different legislative models might be more useful. She further noted that the resolution on the intergovernmental working group stipulated that the mercenaries working group would be available for consultation and her group was more than willing to play that role.

She went on to say that the working group had consistently encouraged States to ratify the Convention on Mercenaries, which would then lead Sates to outlaw mercenaries in their systems. That would take care of some of the dual criminality issues raised by South Africa.

The representative of South Africa expressed appreciation to the outgoing members of the working group.



"Use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights
and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to


At new webpage, PgDn 5 times to item 68

At item 68, click on 2d sub-item = A/66/317

(do not click on letters)

and choose Open or Open in new tab

You'll get a .pdf; click Open or Save

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