Threats to use Molotov cocktails in Poland, a civil disobedience workshop in affluent rural England, and an Irish farmer with a sick child moved to become an eco-campaigner: these are just some of the ways in which Europeans have responded to the expansion of a much-debated oil industry practice.
Fracking has long been the source of heated debate in Pennsylvania and the controversy is now exploding in Europe, fueled by horror stories from across the Atlantic.
It is a debate that has created some unlikely alliances: The usual suspects of environmental campaigning have been joined by farmers and inhabitants of the so-called "stockbroker belt" concerned about house prices and “the industrialization of the countryside.”
There are even suggestions that Russian money has been financing anti-fracking groups in Bulgaria – to help keep prices for its gas exports high.
The U.K. has become the latest front line for fracking after the British government lifted a ban imposed when the procedure was linked to a series of earthquakes in northwest England.